Marker Table and Mutation GraphAncestral Tree and Mutation Graph Nodes

Tutorial Notes on

Genetic Genealogy
Y-DNA, Ancestral Trees and Mutation Graphs

by Robert L. Baber
last updated 2016 October 8

Our ancestors never completely died – they continue to live in our DNA.

This web site offers you information on using Y-DNA test results for family genealogical research. Click on the corresponding line below for tutorial notes on
  1. DNA Basics, Definitions, Concepts and Understanding Fundamentals such as Marker Tables, Ancestral Trees and Mutation Graphs.
  2. How to Deduce Ancestors' Y-DNA Marker Values.
  3. How to Transform a Marker Table into a Mutation Graph.
  4. How to Transform a Mutation Graph into an Ancestral Tree.
  5. How to Transform a Marker Table into an Ancestral Tree Directly, without Deriving a Mutation Graph.
  6. When Are Which Additional Tests Needed?
For a pdf file containing the two cards pictured in the upper left and right corners of this web page, click on either of their images above.

For the slides of my presentation on Useful Techniques for Family Genealogy at the Family Tree DNA 10th Annual International Conference on Genetic Genealogy, October 10-12, 2014, click here.
For the slides of my talk on DNA in Baber Family Research given at the Baber Family Gathering 2016 on September 23, 2016, click here.
For the slides of my talk on DNA in Family Genealogical Research, with annotations in English, given at a course on Ahnenforschung (Ancestral Research) on October 7, 2016, click here.
For the slides of my talk on DNA in Family Genealogical Research, with annotations in German, given at a course on Ahnenforschung (Ancestral Research) on October 7, 2016, click here.

Copyrights to all material on or accessible from this page are owned and reserved by Robert L. Baber. These materials may be used privately for personal family research only. For permission to use this material in any other way or commercially, please contact the author.

You can contact the author at Bob@RLBaber.de. For information about


Conversions, Marker Table, Mutation Graph, Ancestral Tree